Treatment Options

Although only a few clinical studies have been conducted, basic research, suggests therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, and skin diseases as well as various other symptoms. Cannabinoids, including cannabidiol, are powerful antioxidants. In addition, CBD has anxiolytic and powerful anti-inflammatory properties.

Several clinical studies and anecdotal evidence (keyword: Charlotte Figi) suggest CBD’s therapeutic potential for epilepsy. This was evidenced by a prospective, randomized double-blind study from 1980 on a small number of patients, which showed a good anticonvulsant response. In various animal models, acute anti-epileptic responses were shown; protection against the development of epilepsy was also demonstrated in earlier administration of CBD (e.g. in the Kindling Model). In addition, epidemiological studies have shown that ingestion of cannabinoids decrease the risk of the occurrence of epileptic seizures.

Source
Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology. 1980;21(3):175-85. PubMed PMID: 7413719.
Jones NA, Glyn SE, Akiyama S, Hill TD, Hill AJ, Weston SE, Burnett MD, Yamasaki Y,Stephens GJ, Whalley BJ, Williams CM. Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures. Seizure. 2012 Jun;21(5):344-52. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2012.03.001. Epub 2012 Apr 19.
Jones NA, Hill AJ, Smith I, Bevan SA, Williams CM, Whalley BJ, Stephens GJ. Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. J PharmacolExp Ther. 2010 Feb;332(2):569-77. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.159145. Epub 2009 Nov 11. Pub-Med PMID: 19906779; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2819831.
Shirazi-zand Z, Ahmad-Molaei L, Motamedi F, Naderi N. The role of potassium BKchannels in anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol in pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock models of seizure in mice. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 Jul;28(1):1-7. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.03.009. Epub 2013 May 3. PubMed PMID: 23644464.

To date, clinical studies have yet to be carried out on humans and therefore no corresponding information on the effectiveness can be concluded. However, numerous in vitro and animal studies have shown that in addition to THC, CBD may also be effective against cancer. An Italian research team researched the anti-tumor effect of various cannabinoids and came to the conclusion that CBD was the most potent cannabinoid in inhibiting the growth of human breast cells. This was triggered by the induction of apoptosis (cell death) through CBD. These observations were supported by scientists in the United States, who found that CBD exposure leads to a reduction in the number and viability of leukemia cells and to the induction of apoptosis.

Cannabidiol also inhibits ID protein, which plays an important role in tumor biology. CBD is thus the first exogenous non-toxic substance to reduce the ID1-expression in breast cancer cells and lead to a decrease in tumor aggressiveness.

According to research at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute in San Francisco, CBD increases the inhibitory effects of dronabinol (THC) on human brain cancer cell proliferation and cell survival. The two natural cannabinoids have been tested on two series of glioblastoma cells. THC and CBD had a synergistic inhibitory effect on cell proliferation.

Other research groups have confirmed the anti-cancer effects of CBD in glioma and leukemia cells. In leukemia research, a combination of several cannabinoids also increased the effect against cancer. The lead researcher said: “These agents are able to interfere with the development of cancer cells, stopping and preventing them from growing. In some cases, they can destroy cancer cells alone in compliance with specific dosage regimens. In combination with existing treatments, they could possibly constitute very effective strategies for fighting cancer.”

Source:
Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Starowicz K, Matias I, Pisanti S, De Petrocellis L, Laezza C,
Portella G, Bifulco M, Di Marzo V. Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Sep;318(3):1375-87. Epub 2006 May 25. PubMed PMID: 16728591.

McKallip RJ, Jia W, Schlomer J, Warren JW, Nagarkatti PS, Nagarkatti M. Cannabidiolinduced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):897-908. Epub 2006 Jun 5. PubMed PMID: 16754784.

McAllister SD, Christian RT, Horowitz MP, Garcia A, Desprez PY. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6(11):2921-7.

Marcu JP, Christian RT, Lau D, Zielinski AJ, Horowitz MP, Lee J, Pakdel A, Allison J, Limbad C, Moore DH, Yount GL, Desprez PY, McAllister SD. Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival. Mol Cancer Ther 2010;9(1):180-9.

Solinas M, Massi P, Cantelmo AR, Cattaneo MG, Cammarota R, Bartolini D, Cinquina V, Valenti M, Vicentini LM, Noonan DM, Albini A, Parolaro D. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Nov;167(6):1218-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02050.x.

Scott KA, Shah S, Dalgleish AG, Liu WM. Enhancing the activity of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids in vitro through modifications to drug combinations and treatment schedules. Anticancer Res. 2013 Oct;33(10):4373-80.

Clinical studies have shown that the proliferation of human skin cells is influenced by the cannabinoids CBD and CBG. Several studies have shown that cannabinoids can relieve the symptoms of chronic skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis.

According to a study published in 2007, all cannabinoids – THC, CBD, CBN, CBG and anandamide – proved to be effective in inhibiting the production of keratinocytes in the epidermis; and since in psoriasis it’s about an overproduction of keratinocytes, these findings will prove to be helpful in future research on cannabinoid therapies to treat the disease.

CBD has also proven its therapeutic benefits for treating acne. Administering Cannabidiol to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ cultures inhibited the lipogenic effects of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination made from linoleic acid and testosterone. It also suppresses the sebocyte proliferation by activating the transient receptor potential of vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ion channels.
The study concludes: “In summary, our findings suggest that CBD has the potential to be a promising therapeutic agent for treating acne vulgaris based on its combined lipostatic, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects.”

Source:
Pucci M, Rapino C, Di Francesco A, Dainese E, D’Addario C, Maccarrone M. Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Oct;170(3):581-91. doi: 10.1111/bph.12309.

Wilkinson D.,Williamson E. Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. Feb. 2007Journal of Dermatological Science , Volume 45 , Issue 2 , 87 – 92

Various studies have shown that CBD is a strong antioxidant and has more antioxidant effects than vitamin C or E. The body’s own biological functions produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as peroxides, oxygen ions and free radicals, which usually have to be detoxified in order to mitigate cell damage.
If the body is not in a position to effectively detoxify these ROS, then the oxidative stress may increase until apoptosis (cell death) sets in. Oxidative stress is involved in the development of various progressive diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Fragile X syndrome and cancer. Normal cells require low concentrations of ROS to make a healthy transfer of cellular signals possible. If the fragile cells in question are cancerous, they need a high concentration of ROS in order to maintain higher metabolism rates and increasing division and growth rates. Therefore, oxidative stress generally promotes the growth of cancer cells. However, it was proven that the oxidative stress generated by CBD in certain cancer cell types can actually initiate apoptosis, particularly in breast cancer in humans.

Source
Hampson AJ, Grimaldi M, Axelrod J, Wink D. Cannabidiol and (-)Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jul7;95(14):8268-73.
Perez M, Benitez SU, Cartarozzi LP, Del Bel E, Guimarães FS, Oliveira AL. Neuroprotection and reduction of glial reaction by cannabidiol treatment after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2013 Nov;38(10):3424-34. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12341. Epub 2013 Aug 25.

Other therapeutic benefits of CBD are found in

– Dependence and withdrawal
– Obesity
– Allergies and asthma
– Alzheimer’s
– Anxiety Disorders and PTSD
– Diabetes
– Hepatitis
– Ischemia
– Liver and brain damage
– MRSA germs
– Schizophrenia
– Sleep disorders
– Sepsis
– Nausea and vomiting